Technical components with the ability to gather data about their own state and their environment are extremely flexible in application. Their introduction and further development is currently motivated by fields like structural health monitoring (SHM), where first steps were taken by the construction industry to establish a continuous survey of bridges. New approaches in the aerospace and wind energy industry promise drastically reduced maintenance costs via concepts like “maintenance on demand”. Fatigue is a common issue in such cases, while for fibre reinforced composites, detection and evaluation of impact damage is added. To identify strength and location of impact events and to determine the remaining structural strength of the affected component in as little time as possible are major challenges in this respect. The level of interest is stressed by the fact that carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are currently introduced to commercial airplane design on a hitherto unknown level, replacing e. g. aluminium fuselage structures.